Long vehicles. Long buses
In spring 1951, Daimler-Benz presented the O6600H, its first bus based on a pioneering technical concept - forward control and rear engine - which is still being used in the new millennium.
Dispensing with the long bonnet ensured more efficient use of space, and installing the engine in the rear banished this noise source from the interior. This was the first Mercedes-Benz bus with a chassis which was not derived from a truck but was specifically designed for bus operation.
The striking front end of the vehicle featured three headlamps and horizontal air intake slits instead of the classic radiator grille. The frame of the eleven-metre-long Mercedes-Benz O6600H was situated so low that the vehicle could be offered either for urban service, rural service or as a coach, the latter with roof edge glazing. The six-cylinder OM 315 was installed transversely and as on the O 6600 "conventional" model, which remained in production, delivered exactly 145 hp. A further striking feature besides the transverse-mounted engine was the electric gearshift system.
Famous american coach bus.
|Length x width x height:||490” x 96” x 134”||Gross weight (GVW):||13.476 tons|
|Engine:||rare-mounted, 8-cylinder, GMC model 8V-71 two cycle diesel||Luggage compartment:||345 ft3|
|Output:||245 hp||Passenger seats:||43+2 seats|
|Electrical:||12vdc with two batteries||Chassis||Three-axle|
|Air Conditioning||71/2-ton carrier unit off main e||Fuel tank||180-gallons|
|Brakes:||Air brakes Bendix-Westinghouse||Gearbox:||4-speed, manual|
3uC 127 (Zis 127)
The first, and, unfortunately, the last soviet coach bus. The bus style is rather similar to American buses of that time. Soft running all-metal framized body with rear-mounted diesel engine, comfort passenger compartment. Visually the bus also has the American style - corrugated plates on the boards, front part and front board windows look similar to Greyhound Scenicruiser.
Overall dimensions and the engine power are less, than Greyhound Scenicruiser (only 10.2 m long and 180 hp). The capacity was only 32 passengers, there was no WC, wash sink or air-conditioner. The preproduction model had the capacity of 41 passengers, but was scraped because of too big length and unsatisfactory dynamic performance.
From 851 buses, which were build in 1951-1960, no one remained.
The next major model changeover took place in the spring of 1965, when the Mercedes-Benz O302 went into production. Although in retrospect the O302, which was again available in coach, rural-service and urban versions, is sometimes regarded as the last of the all-rounders, Daimler-Benz was actually already moving in another direction. True, the O302 was a genuine coach which could be used equally well on rural-service routes. But the urban bus versions remained very much in the minority.
Like its predecessor the O 321 H, the Mercedes-Benz O302 displayed a very modern appearance. This centred on a high front windscreen and, in the coach versions, large, arching side windows which swept up into the roof.
A hallmark of the O302 was the wealth of different versions designed to cater for every conceivable application. Initially the vehicle was available in three different lengths and more versions were soon added, the longest of which measured twelve metres. Vehicles could be supplied with tall or low side windows or roof edge glazing, with air or steel suspension and with hydraulic or pneumatic brakes.
Initially the O302 was available with 126 and 150 hp engines, but later in the vehicle's ten-year production life the most powerful engine developed 240 hp. In-line engines were used throughout. With total production of more than 32,000 units, including a large number of chassis versions for coachbuilders, the O302 even exceeded the production record set by the popular O321H.
Neoplan N138/4 'Jumbocruiser'
Famous Neoplan bus N138/4 (8x2), also known as 'Jumbocruiser', was produced from 1975 to 1986. It is the largest coach bus, which was ever produced. It is also the unique articulated coach bus in the world. There were only 12 buses produced.
Neoplan N122/3L 'Skyliner'
Famous Neoplan bus N122/3 (6x2), also known as 'Skyliner', was prodused from 1979 and is still produced now (N122/3L (long) modification, which is really drawn, is produced since 1995).
|Length x width x height:||13.65m x 2.5m x 4m||Gross weight (GVW):||about 25.5 tons|
|Engine:||Mercedes-Benz 523hp||Luggage compartment:||Up to 13m3|
|Brakes:||ABS with ARS||Passenger seats:||74+2+1 seats|
|Emissions class:||Euro 2||Gearbox:||Automatic|
|Features:||Refrigerator, TV/Video system, Audio system, WC, Kitchen|
Mercedes Tourismo O315 RHD
New Mercedes tourist bus.
|Length x width x height:||11.98m x 2.5m x 3.647m||Gross weight (GVW):||about 20 tons|
|Engine:||Rear-mounted, 6-cylinder diesel||Luggage compartment:||Up to 11.6m3|
|Output:||OM 457 LA 310 kW (422 hp)||Passenger seats:||49+1 seats|
|Wheelbase:||6.25m||Emissions class:||Euro 3|
|Swivel radius:||10.646m||Tires:||295 / 80 R 22,5|
The Volvo 9700 not only embodies an attractive design, it also offers first-class passenger comfort. The harmoniously colour-matched interior and low noise level create a pleasant atmosphere. Large tinted windows and a sloping floor give a good field of visibility to all passengers. The climate is always pleasant owing to an entirely new ventilation system characterised by extremely high capacity and individually adjustable air vents for each seat. The heating and ventilation system is available in a choice of three versions. The most advanced variant features electronic control of the heating and air conditioning. All the seats offer a high level of comfort, with individual adjustment and upholstery in soft velour trim. In addition, every seat comes with a head restraint, foot-rest and either a three-point or two-point seat belt. What is more, it is possible to specify booster cushions for children. Spacious luggage racks of aircraft type provide plenty of space for belongings inside the bus. The range of choice naturally also encompasses options such as a refrigerator, audio system with a loudspeaker in each row of seats, a TV/video system with a 14-inch and 17-inch monitor, and a toilet.
The safety level is very high and the Volvo 9700 is designed to meet the R66 norm. What is more, the bus is equipped with anti-squeeze door mouldings and can be specified with a door brake system and smoke detectors in both the toilet and luggage compartments. A high-position brake lamp of LED type further boosts safety. The Volvo 9700 is available with two or three axles and a choice of two heights. The Volvo 9700 can also be specified with two or three axles, and in lengths from 12 to 14.7 metres.
Body: The stainless steel body gives exceptionally high resistance to corrosion and makes bus maintenance easy. Maximum gross weight 19,000 kg for two-axle versions, or 26,500 kg for buses with three axles. Height: 3.58 m/3.70 m, width: 2.55, length: 12-14.7 m. Luggage capacity up to 13m3 for two-axle versions, up to 17m3 for buses with three axles.
Stuffing: Volvo DH12 Engines (6-cylinder, 12-litre diesel) with 340 bhp (1200/1700Nm), 380 bhp (1850 Nm) or 420 bhp (2000 Nm). Available in mid-engined or rear-engined configuration. Volvo EGS-V with 8 gears transmission (oilchange intervals up to 400,000 km, depending on oil type) or ZF 6S-1600 with 6 gears, automatic transmissions. Electronically controlled air suspension with kneeling facility. Independent front suspension. Volvo electronically controlled disc brakes or S-cam brakes. There is the option of the Volvo Engine Brake. The Volvo EGS-V is optionally available with the Volvo Compact Retarder. The ZF6S-1600 can be specified with a Voith retarder. Automatic transmissions feature an integrated retarder as standard.
Body: Self-supporting tubular space frame, with full-circle frame ribs, sheet steel panelling hot-dip galvanised on both sides, removable bumpers, high quality plastic front and rear sections. Height: 4 m, width: 2.55 m, length: 13.89 m.
Stuffing: Mercedes-Benz OM 502 LA Engine, V 8 cylinder, Euro III, Power output 350 kW/476 hp. Transmission Mercedes-Benz GO 210, servo-assisted. Fuel tank capacity 630 litres, behind tag axle. Front axle with double cross-link independent suspension,
Maintenance-free molecular links, shock absorbers, anti-roll bar, driving axle Mercedes-Benz HO 6-axle, shock absorbers, anti-roll bar, tag axle ZF-RAS (Rear Axle Steering) tag axle with positive steering, shock absorbers. Air suspension with 2 air springs at front and tag axle,
4 air springs on driven axle, suspension raising / lowering system. Front axle - pneumatic disc brakes, driving axle - pneumatic disc brakes, tag axle - pneumatic disc brakes. Electronic Stability Program, Anti-lock Braking System, Acceleration Skid Control, Electronic Braking System, Brake Assist, Engine Brake, elektro-pneumatic parking brake. Voith VR 115 E retarder. ZF Servocom steering gear between front wheels. Blaupunkt Coach 2000 Professional
Options: CD changer, DVD player, Video player, Electrically folding flat screens, Navigation systems, Axial fan heater with temperature adjustment
Scania K124 irizar PB
This new Scania-Irizar bus was used as the prototype for the futuristic bus.
Local traffic buses (city buses, intercity buses)
Fiat 411 series
In the early Fifties, many European countries recovering from the war saw their population rise and the need for new, modern mass transit systems soon became a priority. Many constructors responded to this need by designing larger, more efficient buses and Fiat was no exception.
After some earlier attempts, 1956 saw the introduction of the model which would become the standard vehicle for urban transportation in the country: the 411. It was soon tried out and appreciated in a large number of cities and small towns, where it became popular. Many local constructors proposed their revised version of that bus, all built on the same original chassis and powered by same 10.6 liter engine; one of these firms also proposed an articulated, high capacity version. Even a trolleybus version was available, called 2411.
In its many years of production, this bus line went through three major improvements, only to be discontinued in the late Sixties; the last units were set aside in the mid Eighties. This set includes three of the many available variants of the Fiat 411: the version with the Cansa bodywork, here in the variant featuring its typical larger front door, and two proposals by Viberti, the 2-axle Monotral CV23 and the 3-axle CV46 used in Turin. Some of them appear in their historical liveries.
The Routemaster bus was built by AEC in England in 1958, as a replacement for the older London Busses. The bus was a big hit, with it's rear platform that allowed people to get on while the bus was stopped. In 1968, a version of the Routemaster was made for London's Green Line long-distance routes. This variant, called the Routemaster Coach, was painted green, had double headlamps, and electrically operated doors on the rear platform. They were produced for 10 years, and are used until 2005, when safety regulations meant that the Routemaster had to be drawn out of service.
Saviem/Renault SC10 series
Saviem's SC10 has been for more than thirty-five years the archetype of French bus. Since 1965, it has been used in the streets of Paris and other French cities and towns, deeply changing the way all domestic constructors would build buses even in the years to come.
The project which gave birth to this model dates back to 1958, when a number of private transport companies (including Paris' RATP) set some rules for a new standard type of urban bus: the SC10 was Saviem's answer to this. The first prototypes were built in 1964 and the final production would start a year later, with a model named SC10U. It featured a strikingly modern shape for the time; its length of 11 meters followed one of the standard rules. Another of these regulations limited the floor height to just 635mm, which made the constructor decide for a front-engine bus scheme. The engine itself was a 7.2 liter, supplied by MAN and capable of 144 hp (later brought to 160). At first the SC10 were available in two versions, a two-door and a three-door one; the former was more popular in Paris, the latter was spread elsewhere in the country.
After an accident involving the rear part of an SC10 in 1976, Saviem's engineers had the idea of proposing a new version of their creation, called "A", which would feature an open rear platform, making the bus similar in the looks to the old Renault TN6 from the Thirties. This version proved itself to be as successful as the closed one.
In 1981, when Renault acquired Saviem, the SC10 went through a moderate face-lifting, gaining a more modern-looking front. Eight years later, France's best selling urban bus was discontinued, after selling some 11004 units all around the country and abroad. Recent concerns about pollution will mean that many buses of this kind will be taken out of service in the next years.
Models in this set include all types of the most popular variants, some of which appear in their historical liveries: Saviem SC10U
(1965-1975), Saviem SC10UC
(1966-1975), Saviem SC10UMR
(1975-1981), Saviem SC10UMC
(1976-1981), Saviem SC10UMA
(1977-1981), Renault SC10R
(1981-1989), Renault SC10RA
/IuA3 677 (ËèÀÇ 677)
Fast forty years have passed since /IuA3 started producing of a big city buses /IuA3 677. Since that time these buses are widely used by city's buses parks in the whole USSR and later in xUSSR. Some ones were delighted with it, naming it the best buses of the seventies, some ones abused; it was named as "livestock stock carrier". But one thing was unchanged - buses of this model are still in heavy service.
In the 1950-1960 the passenger transporting requirements grew quickly. The in city transporting was aimed on using public conveyances, and existing buses with a capacity of 50-60 were unacceptable. The work on the developing of the new model has begun. In 1962 the first test model with the capacity of 110 passengers and a two wide double doors and collecting platforms near each door, was realised. During test some major defects were found and they were fixed in 1966. The frame was completely redone and a new pneumatic suspension was installed (instead of spring suspension), while the body, the high floor level (890mm), and the uneconomical carburettor engine were unchanged. The attempts to use diesel engine plucked due the engines weight.
It is XXI century now, but new /IuA3 677 still appear in some of xUSSR cities. The reason is the extremely low cost of the bus - about only $20000! The main /IuA3 factory produces the newer models row, but some other factories, such as Tosno's car repair service factory, produce the /IuA3 677 using the old model documentations, giving new life to the famous /IuA3 677. They also found the possibility to mount the diesel engine on it.
Ikarus 2xx series
Fiat 421 series
In the early Seventies, Fiat started studying a bus prototype which would be very different from its predecessors. The prototype was finalized in 1973 with the name of "421" and the first production units started being shipped later that year.
The Fiat 421 featured a 13,8 liter engine capable of 220hp, which made it the most powerful Italian urban bus in production at that time. One of its peculiarities was the technical solution of mounting the engine in the front; this allowed a quite low floor compared to other buses used at that time, but had the inconvenience of causing too much heat around the driver's seat in the warm season. The model was produced in two chassis versions: the roughly eleven-meter long 421A and the twelve-meter 421AL, the largest single-frame urban bus produced in Italy at that time.
Combining elegance and a fair amount of capacity, the Fiat 421 earned a remarkable success and was a constant presence in the fleets of the largest cities all around the country. Bodyworks and interiors were available in many different variants: models in this set include the 421A by Breda (BCF)
used in Milan, the 421A Cameri (before 1977
, after 1977
) owned by ATAC in Rome, the 421AL Cameri (before 1977
, after 1977
) as they were used by Genoa's public transport company, and Turin's 421AL SEAC-Viberti (before 1977
, after 1977
), all in their historic liveries.
Production ceased in 1983 and the last units were withdrawn from service around 2001, after years of heavy duty. After being set aside, a number of buses of that series was sold to some Eastern European countries and Cuba, proving it to be one of the most sturdy buses Fiat had ever made.
Inbus 150/210/280 series based on Siccar 177/181/383
The "Inbus" joint venture was created in Italy in the late Seventies, and included four firms (Breda, DeSimon, Siccar and Sofer) which put their efforts together in order to create an alternative to the widespread Iveco models in that country. The joint venture wouldn't last long, although it managed to produce a quite successful bus model: the Inbus U210FT and its siblings.
It was Siccar which produced the chassis for the bus, in three variants: the 12-meter "177", the shorter "181" and the 18-meter, articulated "383". The other three companies provided other parts, such as the bodywork, the interiors and other mechanic parts, except the engine, which was bought from Fiat and mounted in the rear (a quite new feature for that time, which allowed a lower pavement). The production consisted in three lines of buses with similar design and different sizes, and were named after their length: there was the "Inbus U210FT", the best-selling model built on the "177" chassis, the "Inbus U150FT" built on the "181" and the "Inbus AU280FT" built on the "383" chassis. The first prototypes of the U210FT and the U150FT were built in 1978 and the first buses were shipped in the following year: the articulated AU280FT was introduced some years later, and was the only one whose production went on for some time even after the joint venture collapsed. There were even suburban versions of all three models, names "S150FT", "S210FT", and "AS280FT", which featured more seating places and a higher top speed. At first, the "U210" model was equipped with a 208hp, 10.3 liter Fiat engine, which was replaced by a 203hp, 9.5 liter one by the same constructor after some time.
They proved to be very successful buses and were rapidly shipped to many cities around the country to replace the aging models from the Sixties, in both urban and suburban service. Some of these buses (especially the articulated ones) are still in service as of 2005.
Leyland Olympian Air-con by Kowloon Motor Bus (1933) Ltd (Fleet ID: AL). Car Body by Walter Alexander. Manufacturing year: 1988 - 1993. Gearbox: ZF 4HP500 (4 speeds). Seating Plan: Upper-deck seats 53, Lower-deck seats 38, Lower-deck stands 33. Dimensions: 11.62m x 2.45m x 4.38m.
ALs are the first successful type of Air-Con buses in Hong Kong, and it's design had been used widely as basics for Air-Con buses now adays. Using the Cummins LT10 engine with average power output (177kWh, 245hp at 1990rpm), Leyland still managed to make this bus as powerful as it can be. It has nice accelerations and slope-climbing abilities.
The most amazing fact about the AL is that they are the last productions of the Leyland before consolidating with Volvo. Volvo used the Leyland Olympains as references for their improved Volvo Olympians, but the latter ones came out having poor accelerations and snail like climbing performance, even with the same specifications.
ALs are now used as spare buses in the KMB fleet. They're always on-call to replace any bus having problems. Therefore they can be seen on any route. In conclusion, although ALs are no special vehicles when compared to Neoplan, Volvo and Dennis buses nowdays, ALs are still legends at it's own generation of the early 90s.
The Volvo 5000 is a new complete bus from Volvo, perfectly tailored for a long service life in demanding city operations. In addition to a low, smooth floor and comfortable interior, the Volvo 5000 offers a first-class driver's environment and excellent ride and road holding. A modern fuel-efficient engine optimised for inner-city operations combines low fuel consumption with low emissions. The body is made of aluminium, which ensures low weight and long life. The Volvo 5000 is available in two-axle configuration and as an articulated bus with a capacity of up to 130 passengers.
With comfortable seats suspended from the roof panel, tinted windows, a powerful climate unit and air suspension, the Volvo 5000 offers a high level of comfort. The interior noise level is pleasantly low. Powerful brakes, interior trim designed to prevent injury and a reinforced front section all contribute to added safety.
Body: Patented body construction featuring extruded aluminium profiles offering a very strong, corrosion-resistant and easy to maintain body with long service life and low weight. Wide selection of door variants. The 2-axle version can be equipped with up to 3 double doors, the articulated version with 4. Two-axle version is 12m x 2.55m x 3m with a 18.9tons max. gross
weight. Articulated version is 18m x 2.55m x 3m with 28tons max. gross
weight. Low floor, convenient boarding and exiting, bright and pleasant interior, comfortable seats suspended from the roof, powerful climate unit. Passenger capacity is up to 100 passengers for two-axle version, up to 130 passengers for articulated version.
Staffing: Volvo D7C engine with 215, 250, 290 or 310hp. Approved as per EU standards. Automatic gearboxes with 3, 4 or 5 gears. Air springs and independent front suspension with twin stabilisers combine high comfort with first-class ride and roadholding. Front disc brakes and rear S-cam brakes for high braking performance, smooth and gentle braking and simple maintenance.
Scania CL94UB Omni Link
New Scania complete citybus with aluminium frame.
|Length x width x height:||12m x 2.55m x 3.2m||Weight:||11 tons|
|Engine:||rare-mounted, 6-cylinder, 9-litre diesel||Passenger capacity:||Up to 109 passengers|
|Output:||Scania DC9 01 (230 hp)||Passenger seats:||33+2 seats|
|Emissions class:||Euro 3||Chassis||Two-axle|
|Gearbox:||ZF4HP502C (R-N-D) automatic||Doors:||2+2+1|
The Irisbus transport vehicle, Civis, equipped with the Siemens Transportation Systems optical guidance device.
Dolphin intercity bus
This prototype was used for Dolphin intercity bus.
Volvo Bus & Volvo Super Bus
Volvo bus and Volvo super bus are available only with Long vehicles v2 and are not available in Long vehicles v3.
The Mercedes description texts are by DaimlerChrysler and can be found here
The Volvo description texts are by Volvo Bus Corporation, Goteborg, Sweden
and can be found here
The Setra description texts are by Setra and can be found here